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Tulou building| 土楼

“土楼”顾名思义,就是用泥土做的房子,是客家 的民居,主要分布在福建省。中国民居的丰富多样,四合院、蒙古包、窑洞等早以为人所知,而客家人独有的土楼却显得很神秘。土楼是民居中面积最大的,往往一个土楼,可以容纳几百人同时居住。

 

Tolou literary refers to building makes of the earth. It is a communal residence for Hakka people in Fujian province. China’s residential buildings come out in different styles, such as the courtyard residences, the Mongolian to yurt,or cave dwellings. But a Tulou building is a little bit mysterious. It is considered the largest residence compound as one would be home to as many as several hundred residents.

 

 

土楼为什么能住这么多人,她是这么形成的呢?这与客家人历史上的迁徙密切相关。当时,客家人是中原一带的汉民,后因战乱、饥荒等原因被迫南迁。他们再流往他想的过程中,团结互助、共度难关。每到一处,本姓本家总要聚居在一起,逐渐形成了客家民居独特的建筑形式——土楼。

 

Why can the Tulou building hold so many people? how did you make the person Present form? it could be related to Historical migration of Hakka people, Hakka people used to be Han Chinese living in central China, they were forced to migrate to southern parts of the country due to wars and famine. They helped one another live through the difficulties, after they arrived, the whole clan with the same surname and could lived together. Gradually creating the residential buildings types for Hakka people.

 

 

土楼是坚固的堡垒,楼中可以堆积粮食,饲养牲畜,敌人来犯时只需将大门一关,几名青壮年守住大门,就很安全了。土楼最早是方形的,但方形土楼视角阴暗,通风采光不均匀,所以客家人又设计出了通风采光良好的圆楼,奇特的圆形土楼最富传奇色彩,比如福建永定县境内的圆形土楼有360座,最大的圆楼直径82米,最小的直径17米,最古老的圆楼“承启楼”建于1790年。最多时,楼内曾居住,80多户人家有600多人。

 

The Tulou building compound is like a well-protected fortreess. Grands and rice can be stored inside the building and residents can raise livestock. If enemies attacked the compound, all Hakkas needed would be to close the gate and have some strong young men guard the gate. The whole clan would be safe. Originally, the residential compound would take the shape of a square. But its four corners could not get enough sunlight. Hakkas then designed buildings of circular forms, making them the most traditional style of Tulou buildings. There are 360 circular Tulou buildings in Yongding county of Fujian Province. The largest one is with a diameter of 82 meters while the smallest one with a diameter of 17 meters. The most ancient building, Chenqi Building, was in 1790, which was home to 80 households, about 600 residents at its prime.

 

 

至今土楼恢宏的格局,客家人大家族式的生活方式,都吸引着众多的游客前去游上,土楼以其独特的魅力,被列入联合国教科文组织的《世界文化遗产名录》。

 

The exquisite layout of Tulou building compounds and the lifestyles of Hakkas inside the compound has attracted large number of visitors. It has been designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site for its unique shape and ingenious structure.

 

 


 

 

生词: useful words:

土楼:  tǔlóu       Tulou building

民居: tiānwén    residential building

客家:dì lǐ         Hakka people(a branch of Han people)

福建:  fú jiàn      Fujian province


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2020-05-25
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