The Chinese word "有", which means "have" basically, is not a difficult one for Chinese learners. Except the basic meaning, it has more functions Chinese learners should keep in mind. Functions of the verb "有" can be summarized as follows:
1. To express possession 表示拥有
wǒ yǒu zì diǎn
I have a dictionary.
tā yǒu zhōng guó huà
He has a Chinese painting.
2. To express existence 表示存在
wū lǐ yǒu rén
There is someone in the house.
cūn zi qián biān yǒu yì tiáo hé
There is a river in front of the village.
3. To give a list of things 表示列举
wǒ de péngyou yǒu yīng guó rén, zhōng guó rén, fǎ guó rén, rì běn rén
Among my friends, there are British, Chinese, French and Japanese.
wū zi lǐ yǒu zhuō zi, yǒu yǐ zi, yǒu shū jià, yǒu guì zi
There are tables, chairs, bookshelves and cabinets in the house.
4. To express inclusion 表示包含
Yì nián yǒu shí èr gè yuè
A year is composed of 12 months.
zhè běn shū yǒu shí zhāng
This book consists of 10 chapters.
5. To express the meaning of reaching a certain quantity 表示达到（某个数量）
zhè xiē shuǐ guǒ yǒu sān gōng jīn
The fruit weighs 3 kg.
pán zi lǐ de bēi zi yǒu shí gè
There are 10 cups in the plate.
6. "有" can be followed by abstract nouns to form adjective phrases, which can be pre-modified by adverbs of degree, to indicate a great many in some aspect. Such a phrase means "be very good at a certain aspect".
hěn yǒu jīng yàn
hěn yǒu xī wàng
7. "有" can make a general reference 表示泛指
yǒu yì tiān
yǒu gè dì fang
8. "有" can also be used for comparison 表示比较
tā yǒu bà ba nà me gāo le
He has been as tall as his father.
jīn tiān méi yǒu zuó tiān nà me rè
It is not so hot today as it was yesterday.
The article is translated and editted by Chinlingo. Please indicate the source for any use, reproduction or transfer.