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8 common sentence structures in Mandarin Chinese

This article presents some of the most commonly used sentence patterns in Mandarin Chinese. Examples of how to use each sentence structure will be given.

本文介绍了汉语中最常用的一些句型,并举例说明了这些句型的用法。

Every language has structures and patterns for forming sentences. Mandarin Chinese is just the same. Needless to say, it is very important to learn the most commonly used Mandarin Chinese sentence patterns. This will help students form complete sentences and make it easier for Chinese language learners, or CSL language learners, to begin to speak fluently and express their opinions, thoughts and daily happenings accurately. Many students know many Chinese words, but lack the ability to use such Mandarin vocabulary fluently in speaking or writing Chinese; understanding how to use common Mandarin sentence structures is a great way to polish up your Chinese and make better use of your Chinese vocabulary.

每一种语言都有自己的句子结构与句型,汉语也不例外。不用说,学好汉语中最常用的句型是非常重要的,因为这样能够帮助汉语学习者构造完整的语句,讲一口流利的汉语,用汉语准确地表达自己的意见、想法及日常发生的事情。很多学生认识了很多汉语词汇,却缺少流利使用这些词汇的能力,不论是口头还是书面。学习如何使用汉语的常用句型,能够让你的汉语增色,让你更好地运用汉语词汇。

1. 越来越 (yuè lái yuè)


越来越 means "more and more." This phrase is very useful. Typically an adjective is placed after the phrase in order to describe what is becoming more and more or what is becoming better. Here are a few example sentences:

“越来越”相当于英语里的“more and more”。这是一个很有用的词组。通常,它后面会紧跟着一个形容词,用于表达“越来越”的对象。例句:

你的中文越来越好。(nǐ de zhōnɡ wén yuè lái yuè hǎo) 

Your Chinese is getting better and better.

你的女儿越来越漂亮。(nǐ de nǚ ér yuè lái yuè piào liɑnɡ) 

Your daughter is getting more and more beautiful.

2. A 比 B…(A bǐ B……)

比 (bǐ) is the character that is used for comparisons in Mandarin Chinese. For those who have yet to learn how to make comparisons in Chinese, this is the most useful character to learn. Used in a sentence, its structure is pretty simple; the structure goes as follows: A 比 B and then an adjective. Have a look at a couple of examples:

“比”是汉语中用于表示比较的汉字。对于曾经学过用汉语做比较的人,这是一个必学的且最为有用的汉字。这个字的句型很简单:A比B+形容词。例句:

今天的天气比昨天的天气热。(jīn tiān de tiān qì bǐ zuó tiān de tiān qì rè) 

It is hotter today than it was yesterday.

他的篮球比我的篮球好。(tā de lán qiú bǐ wǒ de lán qiú hǎo) 

He is better at basketball than me.

3. 虽然…..可是 (suī rán……kě shì)

虽然 means "although" or "though" and 可是 means "but" or "however." This 可是 is placed here for emphasis. Check out a few example usages to get the hang of this commonly used Chinese sentence structure:

“虽然”相当于英语中的“although”或“though”, “可是”相当于“but”或“however”。该句型中,“可是”用于表示强调。看看以下例句,理解这个句型的用法。

虽然老师很严格,可是他心地不坏。(suī rán lǎo shī hěn yán ɡé, kě shì tā xīn dì bú huài.) 

Although the teacher is very strict, he is a kind person at heart.

虽然雨下很大,可是我还是想去打高尔夫。

(suī rán yǔ xià hěn dà, kě shì wǒ hái shì xiǎnɡ qù dǎ ɡāo ěr fū) 

Though it rains heavily, I'm still going to play golf.

4. 当……的时候 (dānɡ … … de shí hou)

When you say "when" in Chinese, you must use the enclosed structure of "当。。。的时候." 当 means "to be" or "to be equal to" in this sense and 的时候 means "time" or "when" in this sense. In spoken Chinese, the 当 is not necessary but it is always good to add for clarity. Notice that the time expression of 时候 comes after the topic of the sentence.

这个句型相当于英语中的“when…”句型。这里,“当”表示“to be”或“to be equal to”, “的时候”意为“time”或“when”。口语中,“当”可以被省略,但是最好保留,句子的意思会更清楚。“的时候”之前的部分是该句的主题。

当我去中国的时候,我买了很多纪念品。

(dānɡ wǒ qù zhōnɡ ɡuó de shí hou, wǒ mǎi le hěn duō jì niàn pǐn.) 

When I went to China, I bought lots of souvenirs.

我小的时候,很喜欢吃肯德基。

(wǒ xiǎo de shí hou, hěn xǐ huɑn chī kěn dé jī.) 

When I was little, I really liked to eat KFC food.

5. ……以后 (……yǐ hòu)

以后 means "after" or "afterwards" in Chinese and is usually placed after the event. For example, 

“以后”的意思是“after”或“afterwards”,经常放在某件事之后。比如:

做完作业以后,我要看电视。(zuò wán zuò yè yǐ hòu, wǒ yào kàn diàn shì.) 

After I finish my homework, I want to watch television. 

Notice how 以后 is placed after "I do my homework"; this is common in all Chinese sentence structures.

注意,“以后”放在“I finish my homework”后面,这是所有汉语句型的共性。

他走以后,我会哭。(tā zǒu yǐ hòu, wǒ huì kū) 

After he leaves, I will cry.

6. 不管……还 (bù ɡuǎn…… hái)

不管 means "regardless of" or "no matter…" and 还 means "still." Although 还 is not always constructed with 不管, it is still often used together with it and it is good to remember this structure.

“不管”的意思是“regardless of”或“no matter…”,“还”的意思是“still”。“还”经常与“不管”同时使用,但有时也可以省略。但是无论如何,最好能把这个结构记住。

不管怎样,我还会爱你。(bù ɡuǎn zěn yànɡ, wǒ hái huì ài nǐ.) 

Whatever happens, I will still love you.

不管别人听没听,我还会说。(bù ɡuǎn bié rén tīnɡ méi tīnɡ, wǒ hái huì shuō.) 

Regardless of whether or not people are listening, I will still speak.

7. 非……不可 (fēi…… bù kě)

This is one of the most commonly used double negative structures in Mandarin Chinese. It essentially means "must" or "absolutely must" or "need to." 非 means "not" or "no" and 不可 "not able to"; hence it literally translates as "not not able to." 非 is placed after the subject of the sentence and 不可 closes out the sentence.

这是汉语中最常使用的双重否定句型,意为“must”,“absolutely must”或“need to”。“非”的意思是“not”或“no”,“不可”的意思是“not able to”。 因此,这个句型字面的意思是“not not able to”。“非”放在主语之后,而“不可”则放在句子的结尾。

我非批评她不可。(wǒ fēi pī pínɡ tā bù kě) 

I absolutely must criticize her.

我们非学习不可。(wǒ men fēi xué xí bù kě) 

We must study.

8. 以……为主 (yǐ…… wéi zhǔ)

This structure best translates as "to be mainly focused on…" or "to mainly value…" This is important if you want to describe the things that are important to you or the things your life is currently concerned with.

这个句型可以译为“to be mainly focused on…”或“to mainly value…”。当你要描述一件重要的事情或描述关系到你生活的事情时,这个句型就显得非常重要。

政府以提高生活水平为主。(zhènɡ fǔ yǐ tí ɡāo shēnɡ huó shuǐ pínɡ wéi zhǔ)

The government is mainly concerned with improving the quality of life.

The article is translated and editted by Chinlingo. Please indicate the source for any use, reproduction or transfer. 

本文由Chinlingo编译后发布,如需转载,请标明来源。

2016-06-28

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