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Use “除了…以外” to express “except” in Chinese

Chinese words, learning Chinese, Chinese grammar

除了…以外 (chúle…yǐwài) is often considered one of the basic points in Chinese grammar. It's included in pretty much every Chinese textbook and course. That's because it's really common and really useful! You can use it to express "apart from", "except" and "addition to". For the main part of this structure, you just put the exception in between 除了 and 以外:

"除了…以外"可以说是中文语法中的基础要点之一,它几乎在每本参考书和课程里都会出现,因为它是真的很常见并且很实用。你可以用它表达"apart from","except"还有"addition to"的意思。对于这个结构最主要的部分,你可以把例外的情况放在"除了"和"以外"之间。

 

除了 [something] 以外

 

That can then be used to express "apart from something" or "in addition to something", depending on what comes after it in the sentence. Let's have a look at each one in turn.

这可用于表达"apart from something"或"in addition to something",这取决于句子中跟在后面的部分。一起依次看看每个情况。

 

除了…以外: "apart from", "except"

 

This is the most common use of 除了…以外. You use the structure described above, and follow it with 都:

这是"除了…以外"最为常见的用法,你可以用这个结构去描述上述的内容以及后面跟上"都"字的情况:

 

除了 [something] 以外, [something] 都 [verb]

 

You can use this to express anything along the lines of "apart from A, B all…" in English. Have a look at some example sentences:

你可以用这个结构表达任何事,类似于英语里的"apart from A, B all…"。一起看看一些例句:

 

除了小李以外,其他学生都回答错了。

chúle xiǎo lǐ yǐwài, qítā xuéshēng dōu huídá cuòle.

Apart from Xiao Li, all the students answered incorrectly.

 

除了这个词以外,我都看得懂。

chúle zhège cí yǐwài, wǒ dōu kàndedǒng.

I understand all of it except for this word.

 

除了炒饭以外,她什么都不会做。

chúle chǎofàn yǐwài, tā shénme dōu bù huì zuò.

Apart from fried rice, she can't cook anything at all.

 

Notice how in these sentences 除了…以外 is paired with 都. When it's paired with 都, it means "apart from" except.

注意句子中"除了…以外"是如何搭配"都"的。当它与"都"搭配时,它的意思是"除了例外的情况"。

 

除了…以外: "in addition"

 

To express "in addition" or "as well as", all you do is change the adverb that comes after 除了…以外. This time, you use 还 or 也. Have a look at some example sentences:

想表达"另外"或"也"的话,你要做的只是换掉"除了…以外"后面的副词。这时,你可以用"还"或者"也"。看看一些例句:

 

除了中文以外,他还学过德文。

chúle zhōngwén yǐwài, tā hái xuéguò déwén.

As well as Chinese, he's also studied German.

 

除了咖啡以外,我也喜欢喝茶。

chúle kāfēi yǐwài, wǒ yě xǐhuan hē chá.

As well as coffee, I also like to drink tea.

 

除了工资以外,我还有一些其它收入。

chúle gōngzī yǐwài, wǒ hái yǒu yīxiē qítā shōurù.

In addition to my salary, I also have some other sources of income.

 

The point is that the function is different in this second set of sentences. They're inclusive, whereas the first set above are exclusive.

关键一点是第二组句子的功能是不一样的,它们是"包含的",而上述的第一组是"排除的"。

 

This can be a big confusion for people learning Chinese. Just remember that 除了…以外 can be used to exclude things ("apart from") or include things ("in addition to").

这对学习中文的人来说会是个很大的困惑,需要记住的只是"除了…以外"可用于指"排除事物 (apart from)"也可以指"包含事物 (in addition to)"。

 

Omitting 除了 or 以外

 

The next thing to note about 除了…以外 is that one half of it is often left out. So you'll often see or hear sentences with just 除了 or just 以外, and not both. The structure is still the same, it's just that one part has been skipped out.

下一个关于"除了…以外"需要注意的是它经常会省略一半,因此你会常看见或听见只有"除了"或"以外"的句子而不是完整的两个词。结构还是一样,只是其中一部分被省略。

 

Have a look at some example sentences:

看看一些例句:

 

除了法国,我们也想去西班牙。

chúle Fǎguó, wǒmen yě xiǎng qù xībānyá.

As well as France, we'd also like to go Spain.

 

春节以外,中国还有什么节日?

chūnjié yǐwài, zhōngguó hái yǒu shénme jiérì?

Apart from Spring Festival, what other holidays does China have?

 

银河系以外,还有多少星系?

yínhéxì yǐwài, hái yǒu duōshǎo xīngxì?

Apart from the Milky Way, what other galaxies are there?

 

除了我们地球,太阳系还有七个星球。

chúle wǒmen dìqiú, tàiyángxì hái yǒu qī gè xīngqiú.

There are seven more planets in the Solar System besides Earth.

 

Anyway, just remember that either 除了 or 以外 can often be omitted from a sentence.

总之,只需记住句子里经常会省略"除了"或"以外"中的一个。

 

除了…以外 with various adverbs

 

Let's have a look at four different adverbs that you can use after 除了…以外.

一起看看你可以用于"除了…以外"之后的4个不同的副词。

 

都 (dōu)

 

As mentioned above, using 都 after 除了…以外 makes it exclusive. 都 means "all", so you're saying "apart from X, Y all…". Have a look at a couple more example sentences:

如之前所说,"除了…以外"之后用上"都"则表示"排除"。"都"的意思是"all",因此你的意思是"apart from X, Y all…"。一起看看几个例句:

 

除了我以外,大家都吃过饭了。

chúle wǒ yǐwài, dàjiā dōu chīguò fànle.

Apart from me, everyone has eaten.

 

除了她以外,其他人都穿着牛仔裤。

chúle tā yǐwài, qítā rén dōu chuānzhe niúzǎikù.

Except for her, everyone was wearing jeans.

 

还 (hái)

 

If you follow 除了…以外 with 还, it becomes inclusive. This is because 还 means "still" or "also". You're saying "As well as X, Y _also _does something." Have a look at some example sentences:

要是你在"除了…以外"后面跟上"还"的话,它就变成"包括"了。这是因为"还"的意思是"still"或"also",所以你的意思就是"As well as X, Y _also _does something"。看看一些例句:


除了钱以外,他还担心他的健康。

chúle qián yǐwài, tā hái dānxīn tā de jiànkāng.

As well as money, he also worries about his health.

 

除了能力以外,我还缺乏耐心。

chúle nénglì yǐwài, wǒ hái quēfá nàixīn.

As well as ability, I also lack patience.

 

也 (yě)

 

As well as 还, you can also use 也 to express inclusion. Some examples:

除了"还"以外,还可以用"也"来表达"包含"的意思。一些例子:

 

除了学生以外,老师也在这里吃饭。

chúle xuéshēng yǐwài, lǎoshī yě zài zhèlǐ chīfàn.

As well as students, teachers also eat here.

 

他除了抱怨以外,什么也没做。

tā chúle bàoyuàn yǐwài, shénme yě méi zuò.

He did nothing but complain.

 

又 (yòu)

 

Finally, you can also use 又 with 除了…以外. This literally means "again" or "then", but is often more like "also". Have a look at some examples:

最后,你还可以用"又"搭配"除了…以外",字面意思是"再次"或"然后",不过经常更像是"也"的意思。看看一些例子:

 

除了在家里喝的红酒,我又喝了四杯啤酒。

chúle zài jiālǐ hē de hóngjiǔ, wǒ yòu hēle sì bēi píjiǔ.

Apart from the red wine I drank at home, I also had four beers.

 

除了举重以外,我今天又跑了一会儿步。

chúle jǔzhòng yǐwài, wǒ jīntiān yòu pǎole yīhuìr bù.

Apart from lifting weights, I also went running for a while today.

 

除了这个以外,又没有什么好办法。

chúle zhège yǐwài, yòu méiyǒu shénme hǎo bànfǎ.

Apart from this, there aren't any good options.

 

Different versions of 除了…以外

 

You can make 除了…以外 more formal by changing the 以 into 之 (zhī). It works exactly the same, it just sounds a bit more formal. Have a look at some example sentences:

你可以把"以"换成"之",让"除了…以外"变得更加正式。它的作用完全一样,只是听起来稍微正式一点。看看一些例句:

 

除了衣服之外,我们工厂还生产鞋子。

chúle yīfú zhīwài, wǒmen gōngchǎng hái shēngchǎn xiézi.

As well as clothes, our factory also produces shoes.

 

除了你之外,我一无所有。

chúle nǐ zhī wài, wǒ yīwúsuǒyǒu.

Apart from you, I have nothing.

 

除此之外 (chúcǐzhīwài)

 

Finally, there is a formal set phrase: 除此之外. The character 此 is just a formal way of saying "this". So this set phrase simply means "apart from this" or "in addition". Note that you can't split this phrase up or insert other things into it.

最后,还有一个较正式的固定短语:除此之外。"此"这个字只是"this"的一种正式说法,所以这个固定短语就是"apart from this"或"in addition"。注意,你可以将这个短语分开或插入其它成分。

 

You say one point, then add a related one using 除此之外. Have a look at some examples:

你说完一点后,用"除此之外"再加上相关的另一点。看看一些例子:

 

除此之外,我还有更多。

chú cǐ zhī wài, wǒ hái yǒu gèng duō.

I've got plenty more besides that.

 

除此之外,就没有什么好办法了。

chú cǐ zhī wài, jiù méiyǒu shé me hǎo bànfǎle.

There's no good way to do apart from this.

 

If you have any questions or suggestions, please share them in the comments below! We always like to get feedback. 

 

Translated from: chineseboost

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2016-06-21

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