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11 Chinese words used as prefixes or suffixes

chinese prefix, chinese surfix.png


Mandarin isn't usually described as having 'suffixes' and 'prefixes'. It does, however, have characters that often give you a clue about how to translate a word or phrase into English.

一般都认为汉语中没有后缀词和前缀词。实际上,汉语中是有这类词的,这些词有助于你将某些词汇或短语译成英语。

This is a list of eleven characters that frequently translate into English suffixes and prefixes.

以下是十一个常见的汉字,译成英语时只需在单词上加上前缀或后缀。

1. -们 (men): -s

This one is pretty straightforward. It functions exactly like the English plural suffix -s or -es. It also covers what would be irregular plurals in English. The only difference is that it can only be used with people and some animate nouns (such as animals).

后缀“们”非常简单,和英语中的复数后缀“-s”、“-es”的功能一致,英语中的不规则复数也翻译成“-们”。后缀“们”与英语中的复数后缀的唯一区别为:“们”只能指人或有生命的东西(如动物)。

Examples:

鸭子们 (yāzimen): ducks

孩子们 (háizimen): children

他们 (tāmen): they

2. -地 (de): -ly

This is an adverb marker in Mandarin, exactly like -ly in English. It can turn the majority of adjectives into adverbs.

像英语中的“-ly”一样,“地”是汉语中的副词标记词,加上“地”之后,很多形容词都能变成副词。

Examples:

快地 (kuàide): quickly

慢地 (mànde): slowly

高兴地 (gāoxìngde): happily

3. 可- (kě): -able

If something is -able in English, then it's often 可- in Mandarin.

英语中有后缀“-able”的词大部分都可译为“可-”。 

Examples:

可爱 (kěài): adorable

可笑 (kěxiào): laughable

可靠 (kěkào): reliable

4. 重- (chóng): re-

Need to _re_do something? Chances are it's 重- plus a verb in Mandarin.

需要重做某事?汉语中可以用“重-”加动词表示。

Examples:

重做 (chóngzuò): redo

重组 (chóngzǔ): reorganise

重复 (chóngfù): reiterate, repeat

5. 第- (dì): -st, -nd, -rd, -th

For some reason, English has special markers to turn numbers one to three into ordinals, and then just uses -th for everything else. In Mandarin, they're all marked by 第.

由于某种原因,英语中数字转变为序数词时,除了一到三有特殊的变化之外,其他的只需加“-th”即可。在汉语中,所有的序数词都由“第”加数字表示。

Examples:

第一 (dìyī): the first

第二 (dí’èr): the second

第九 (dìjiǔ): the ninth

6. -化 (huà): -ise

If you need to make something a bit more ~adjective~, then sticking 化 on the end will probably do the job.

如果你想让某件东西变得更加“形容词”,你可以在名词之后加上“化”。

Examples:

石化 (shíhuà): fossilise

戏剧化 (xìjùhuà): dramatise

私有化 (sīyǒuhuà): privatise

7. -学 (xué): -logy

Specialist fields of study usually have -logy on the end in English, and -学 in Mandarin.

英语中,通常用后缀“-logy”表示某个专业领域,在汉语中,则是用“-学”表示。

Examples:

生物学 (shēngwùxué): biology

神学 (shénxué): theology

社会学 (shèhuìxué): sociology

8. -家 (jiā): -ist, -er

Generic job titles and occupations often include 家 in Mandarin. It's often the equivalent of -er or -ist in English: "one who does…"

汉语中,可以用“-家”表示从事某个职业的人,相当于英文中的“er”或“ist”,表示做某事的人。

Examples:

画家 (huàjiā): painter

作家 (zuòjiā): writer

科学家 (kēxuéjiā): scientist (two suffixes here!)

9. -着 (zhe): -ing

Where English uses verbs ending -ing, Mandarin often uses -着.

英文中“-ing”形式的动词,在汉语中大部分都用“-着”表示。

Examples:

站着 (zhànzhe): standing

坐着 (zuòzhe): sitting

等着 (děngzhe): waiting

10. -性 (xìng): -ness, -ability

This is used to describe properties and qualities, but it's a bit more versatile in Mandarin than -ness or -ability in English. It converts adjectives into nouns.

“-性”用于描述某个特征或特质,比英文中的“-ness”及“-ability”用法更广,它可以将形容词转化为名词。

可靠性 (kèkàoxìng): reliability

实用性 (shíyòngxìng): utility, usability

可理解性 (kělǐjiěxìng): understandability

11. -主义 (zhǔyì): -ism

This can be used to describe various ideologies and movements. Literally it's something like 'primary meaning', so it's about what's central to a system of thought.

“-主义”可以用于指各种意识形态和行为,其字面意思为“原义”,因此,“-主义”指某种思想体系的核心。

女性主义 (nǚxìngzhǔyì): feminism

社会主义 (shèhuìzhǔyì): socialism

恐怖主义 (kongbùzhǔyì): terrorism

Translated from: eastasiastudent.net

2016-06-21

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