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5 grammatical structures of “加以” in Chinese

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加以 (jiāyǐ) is a very formal word in Chinese that's used to talk about actions being implemented or applied to things. You generally won't hear it in speech, as it's more appropriate for formal writing. We'll look at several structures using 加以. Each of them involves an effect or action being applied to a noun. Usually the effect is also a noun, but sometimes it is a nominalised verb (a verb being used as a noun). Remember that part of speech distinctions are often less clear in Chinese than they are in English.

“加以”是一个非常正式的词语,用于描述对某事实施某种动作。“加以”在口语中很少见,因为该词是正式的书面语。本文将介绍与“加以”有关的结构。每个结构都涉及到对某事施加动作或影响。“施加的影响”在句中也是一个名词,但有时也是名词化的动词。切记,汉语中的词性并不像英语一样分得那么清楚。

1. 加以 with 对 (duì)

“对…加以…”

The most common structure involving 加以 is probably with 对, and it looks like this:

对[noun] 加以 [effect].

“加以”与“对”连用,构成其最常见的结构:对(名词)加以(影响)。

This is used to talk about some sort of action or effect being carried out on or towards the noun (hence the use of 对). Some example sentences:

这种结构用于表述对名词施加某种影响或动作,例句:

科学家的工作就是对理论加以检验。

Kēxuéjiā de gōngzuò jiùshì duì lǐlùn jiāyǐ jiǎnyàn.

The work of a scientist is to put ideas to the test.

政府必须对枪支的买卖加以限制。

Zhèngfǔ bìxū duì qiāngzhī de mǎimài jiāyǐ xiànzhì.

The government must implement limits on the sale of firearms.

讨论这个问题的时候,应该对这两个概念加以区别。

Tǎolùn zhège wèntí de shíhou, yīnggāi duì zhè liǎng gè gàiniàn jiāyǐ qūbié.

When discussing this issue, one ought to distinguish between these two concepts.

As you can see, in these sentences 加以 is being used to link effects or actions to the things they apply to. You could almost think of 加以 as being like 加 alone – "to add". These actions or effects are being _added _to the nouns they apply to. 对 and 加以 do the work of linking them together.

如你所见,在这些句子中,“加以”用于连接名词与施加的动作或影响。你可以将“加以”直接看作“加(to add)”。这些动作或影响是“加”给那些名词的。“对”和“加以”的作用就是将他们连接在一起。

2. 加以 with 把 (bǎ), 将 (jiāng)

“把/将…加以…”

Another common structure with 加以 uses 把 or 将. If you're already familiar with the 把 structure, then you might know that in more formal writing, 将 is often used instead of 把. The structure is otherwise the same. We'll use the more formal 将 here because 加以 is also a formal word.

与“加以”有关的另一个常见的结构是“把/将……加以……”。如果你已经了解“把”字结构的话,你可能就知道,在正式的书写中,“把”字通常会由“将”字替代。但是整个结构还是一样的。在此我们用正式用语“将”取代“把”,因为“加以”也是正式用语。

The basic structure for 将 with 加以 is: 将[noun] 加以 [effect]

“加以”与“将”连用的基本结构是:将(名词)加以(影响)

You can probably see the similarity between this and the structure with 对. Whilst the structures are the same, the meaning may be subtly different in that 对 has a sense of actions being _applied to _the noun, whereas 将 is more neutral and simply serves a grammatical purpose.

如你所见,这个结构和“对(名词)加以(影响)”结构类似。虽然他们的结构相同,但是意义却有着细微的差别。”对……加以……”结构是指对名词施加动作影响,而“将……加以”结构则更加中性,只是纯粹的一个语法结构。

Let's have a look at some example sentences:

请看以下例句:

请将这些照片加以分类。

Qǐng jiāng zhèxiē zhàopiàn jiāyǐ fēnlèi.

Please classify these photos.

本公司将此产品加以促销。

Běn gōngsī jiāng cǐ chǎnpǐn jiāyǐ cùxiāo.

Our company is promoting this product.

我们必须将古建筑加以保护。

Wǒmen bìxū jiāng gǔ jiànzhú jiāyǐ bǎohù.

We must protect old buildings.

Note that other than being a formal version of 把, 将 has another unrelated use. 将 can mean "will" or "is going to", i.e. it indicates future actions. When used in this way it’s very much like a more formal version of 要. Have a look at some example sentences involving 加以 and 将 as a future-marker:

注意:“将”除了是“把”的正式用语之外,还有另外一种用法。“将”可以表示“will”或“is going to”,也就是说,“将”还可以表示将来。在这种用法中,“将”则是“要”的正式用语。请看表示将来时态的“将……加以…….”结构的例句:

政府将在2015年对旅游行业加以规范。

Zhèngfǔ jiàng zài 2015 nián duì lǚyóu hángyè jiāyǐ guīfàn.

The government is going to apply regulations to the tourism industry in 2015.

参议院将对此政策加以修改。

Cānyìyuàn jiāng duì cǐ zhèngcè jiāyǐ xiūgǎi.

The Senate is going to make adjustments to this policy.

In these sentences, 将 is not acting like 把 but is indicating that these actions will occur in the future.

在这些句子当中,“将”的意思并不是“把”,而是指这些动作会在将来发生。

3. 加以 with 以 (yǐ)

“以…加以…”

The character 以 can also be used in a very similar way to 把 and 将. As with those particles, it's used to indicate a noun receiving the action of the verb, or being used during the course of this action. It's sometimes translated as "with", "taking" or "to" for this reason. The structure is the same: 以 noun] 加以 [action]

“以”的用法和“把”、“将”一样。像那些词一样,“以”用于表示某事接受某种动作,或在某种动作中采用某物。因此,“以”有时候翻译成“with”、taking”或“to”。“以”和“加以”连用的结构和其他词与“加以”连用的结构一致:以(名词)加以(动作)。

Have a look at some examples:

请看以下例句

这种病如何以饮食疗法加以治疗?

Zhè zhǒng bìng rúhé yǐ yǐnshíliáofǎ jiāyǐ zhìliáo?

How can this illness be addressed through diet?

消炎药先以清水加以冲淡再用。

Xiāoyányào xiān yǐ qīngshuǐ jiāyǐ chōngdàn zài yòng.

Dilute the antiobiotics with clean water before use.

此决定以公投加以背书。

Cǐ juédìng yǐ gōngtóu jiāyǐ bèishū.

This decision was backed up by a referendum.

以 is a little different to 把 and 将 in that it can be used to talk about things that happen to the noun, but is more general, often describing actions that happened involving the noun.

“以……加以……”结构与“把/将……加以”结构有着细微的不同,因为该结构指名词发生了某事,但更常用,通常是指某个动作的发生涉及到某事(名词)。

4. 加以 with 由 (yóu)

“由…加以…”

You may already be familiar with the 被 structure that’s often described as "the passive voice" in Chinese. Just as 以 is similar to but more general than 将, there is a more formal and general version of 被. The character 由 can be used in much the same way as 被, but rather than indicating passive ("by"), it means "due to". Grammatically, though, it used in the same way as 被. The structure with 加以 is:

[noun] 由 [cause] 加以 [effect]

你可能已经对“被”字结构很熟悉了,该结构通常称为“被动语态”。正如“以”虽然 与“将”类似,但比“将”更常见一样,“被”也有一个更加正式、更加常用的替代词,这个词就是“由”。“由”的意思是“因为(due to)”,并不带有被动的含义。然而,在语法上,“由”和“被”的用法一致。

该结构为:(名词)由(原因)加以(影响)

This structure is used to say that due to the cause, the effect happened to the noun. Some example sentences will make this clearer:

该结构指某种原因对某事(名词 noun)产生了某种结果。欲更清楚地了解该结构,请看以下例句:

食品安全标准由法律加以规范。

Shípǐn ānquán biāozhǔn yóu fǎlǜ jiāyǐ guīfàn.

Food safety standards are specified by law.

此问题能否由计算机加以处理?

Cǐ wèntí néng fǒu yóu jìsuànjī jiāyǐ chǔlǐ?

Can this problem be processed by a computer?

干部均应由中央加以管理。

Gànbù jūn yīng yóu zhōngyāng jiāyǐ guǎnlǐ.

All cadres are managed by the Party Centre.

The above sentences show the grammatical similarity between 由 and 被, but also how 由 is more general in it’s purpose (it's also a lot more formal).

以上例句说明“由”和“被”在语法上相似,但是前者更常见(也更正式)。

5. 加以 with 从 (cóng)

“从…加以…”

This structure is a little different to the rest. You can use 加以 with 从 in the following pattern:

从 [starting point] 加以 [verb] [result]

As 从 means "from" or "following", this structure is used to talk about actions being applied from a certain point in time, or results being obtained from something. Have a look at some example sentences:

这个结构与以上讨论的结构有所不同。其结构为:从(起点)加以(动词)(结果)。

由于“从”的意思是“来自(from)”或“跟(following)”, 该结构是指从某个时间点实施某个动作,或从某件事情中得到某个结果。请看例句:

废水从工厂净化后加以利用。

Fèishuǐ cóng gōngchǎng jìnghuà hòu jiāyǐ lìyòng.

Waste water is used after being purified by the treatment plant.

报告说明,天然资源管理需从根本加以改善。

Bàogào shuōmíng, tiānrán zīyuán guǎnlǐ xū cóng gēnběn jiāyǐ gǎishàn.

The report says that natural resource management needs to be improved from the root.

她从正面加以引导。

Tā cóng zhèngmiàn jiāyǐ yǐndǎo.

She leads by positive example.


Translated from: chineseboost.com

2016-06-21

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