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Uses of 3 Chinese scope adverbs

scope adverb.png


都 (dōu)

 

都 (dōu) is used following the things or people you want to sum up. Usually you can see words like "每 (měi, every)", "各 (gè, each)", "所有 (suǒ yǒu, all)", "一切 (yī qiē, everything)" or "全部 (quán bù, all)" in the sentence.

Examples:

表示总括,放在总括的事物或者人的后面。句中一般有“每”、“各”、“所有”、“一切”、“全部”等词语。例如:

 

我们都相信这个故事是真的。

wǒ men dōu xiāng xìn zhè gè gù shì shì zhēn de.

We all believe that this story is true.

 

他们各个都很高兴参加这个盛大的宴会。

tā men gè gè dōu hěn gāo xìng cān jiā zhè gè shèng dà de yàn huì.

Each of them was happy to go to the grand banquet.

 

不是所有都是好消息。

bú shì suǒ yǒu dōu shì hǎo xiāo xī.

Not all of it is good news.

 

我手提箱里的一切都混在一起了。

wǒ shǒu tí xiāng lǐ de yī qiè dōu hùn zài yī qǐ le.

Everything in my suitcase was jumbled together.

 

这些手套全部都是你的吗?

zhè xiē shǒu tào quán bù dōu shì nǐ de ma?

Are all these gloves yours?

 

When a noun or measure word is a reduplicated word in the sentence, "都" is usually used to modify the predicate. Examples:

名词或量词重叠时,谓语中一般要用“都”。例如:

 

人人都应该遵守交通规则。

rén rén dōu yīng gāi zūn shǒu jiāo tōng guī zé.

Everyone should follow the traffic rules.

 

过春节时,中国家家都很热闹。

guò chūn jiē shí, zhōng guó jiā jiā dōu hěn rè nào.

Every family in China is lively during Spring Festival.

 

你们一个个都很调皮。

nǐ men yī gè gè dōu hěn tiáo pí.

Each of you is very naughty.

 

If there is any interrogative pronoun referring to "谁(shuí, who)", "哪儿(nǎ ér, everywhere)" or "怎么(zěn me, how)" in a sentence, "都(dōu)" can be used following the words to indicate a certain range. For example:

句中有表示任指的疑问代词“谁”、“哪儿”、“怎么”等时,后面要用“都”表示范围。例如:

 

成龙是大明星,谁都认识他。

chéng lóng shì dà míng xīng, shuí dōu rèn shí tā.

Jackie Chan is a superstar and everybody knows him.

 

我哪儿都找遍了,就是找不到我的手表。

wǒ nǎ ér dōu zhǎo biàn le, jiù shì zhǎo bú dào wǒ de shǒu biǎo.

I looked for my watch everywhere but couldn't find it.

 

今天是我的生日,怎么都忘了?

jīn tiān shì wǒ de shēng rì, zěn me dōu wàng le?

Today is my birthday. How could you totally forget it?

 

"都(dōu)" can be followed by temporal words or measure words to indicate a long time period, old age or a large quantity. The structure is "都+ temporal word or measure word+了". Examples:

“都”用在表示时间或数量的词语前,表示时间长、年龄大、数量多。构成“都+时间/数量短语……了”的形式。例如:

 

都两个小时了,你怎么还没做完作业?

dōu liǎng gè xiǎo shí le, nǐ zěn me hái méi zuò wán zuò yè?

How come you still haven't finished your homework after 2 hours?

 

这孩子都三岁了,该让他学会自己吃饭了。

zhè hái zi dōu sān suì le, gāi ràng tā xué huì zì jǐ chī fàn le.

This kid is already three years old. It's time for him to learn to eat on his own.

 

只 (zhǐ)

 

"只(zhǐ)" can be used to limit range and quantity, often with negative adverbs "不(bù)" or "没(méi)". For example:

“只”可以限定范围和数量,常与否定副词“不”、“没”连用。例如:

 

她只关心她自己。

tā zhǐ guān xīn tā zì jǐ.

She only cares about herself.

 

我只认识有限的几个汉字。

wǒ zhǐ rèn shí yǒu xiàn de jǐ gè hàn zì.

I only know a few Chinese characters.

 

净 (jìng)

 

It means "all" in Chinese and is usually used with "是(shì)". Examples:

“都”的意思,常与“是”连用。例如:

 

她的房间里净是书。

tā de fáng jiān lǐ jìng shì shū.

Her room is full of books.

 

这出戏里净是轻快的歌舞场面。

zhè chū xì lǐ jìng shì qīng kuài de gē wǔ chǎng miàn.

The play is all about lovely songs and dances.

 

It also means "always", with feelings of dissatisfaction. For example:

“总是”的意思,多带有不满的情绪。例如:

 

喝矿泉水更健康,别净喝碳酸饮料。

hē kuàng quán shuǐ gèng jiàn kāng, bié jìng hē tàn suān yǐn liào.

It's more healthy to drink mineral water instead of carbonated beverage.

 

别净说没用的话。

bié jìng shuō méi yòng de huà.

Don't always say useless stuff.

2016-06-21

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