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How to use “来” and “去” in Chinese

来, 去, come and go, chinese characters, learning chinese

Direction complements are one of the big obstacles in Chinese grammar. The most common ones must be 来(lái) and 去(qù).

方向补语称得上是中文语法里的主要障碍之一。其中最常见的就是"来"和"去"。

 

Let's have a look at the following combinations:

一起看看以下的组合:

 

Up and down: 上 (shàng) and 下 (xià)

 

For this situation, the up and down directions are covered by 上 and 下.

对于此类情况,用"上"和"下"表达"up"和"down"。

 

The structure for this is:

此种用法的结构是:

 

verb [上/下] [来/去]

 

So you can make any combination you like out of 上 or 下, then 来 or 去. There are four possible combinations there. Let's have a look at an example:

这样你可以使用"上"或者"下"进行各种组合,然后跟上"来"或者"去"。此类有4种可能组合,一起看看以下的例子:

 

请上来。

qǐng shànglái.

Please come up.

 

This sounds like it is being said by someone who is upstairs to someone who is downstairs. The speaker wants the listener to make a movement up and towards them, so they use 上 and 来. Notice how English says "come up", whereas Chinese switches the order: 上来 is literally "up come".

这听起来像是楼上的人对楼下的人说的话。说话人想让听话人朝前者的方向向上移动,因此使用了"上"和"来"。注意,英文里说"come up",而中文则转变顺序变成"上来",字面意义是"up come"。

 

What if the person downstairs doesn't want to go up, and asks the first person to come down? They could say:

要是那个楼下的人不想上去,而想让前者下来呢?他们可以说:

 

你下来。

nǐ xiàlái.

You come down.

 

This action is still coming towards the speaker, but now it's down. So 下 and 来 are used.

动作还是朝向说话者,不过是向下的,所以用上了"下"和"来"。

 

Let's have a look at some more examples:

一起看看更多的例子:

 

从80楼可以看到整个城市,咱们上去看一下吧。

cóng bāshí lóu kěyǐ kàn dào zhěnggè chéngshì, zánmen shàngqù kàn yīxià ba.

From the 80th floor you can see the whole city – let's go up and have a look.

 

这个房子的地下室太恐怖了,我不敢下去。

zhège fángzi de dìxiàshì tài kǒngbùle, wǒ bù gǎn xiàqù.

The basement in this house is too scary, I don't dare go down.

 

In and out: 进 (jìn) and 出 (chū)

 

Besides 上 and 下, you can use a variety of other directions with 来 and 去. One pair is 进 and 出: inward movements and outward movements.

除了"上"和"下",你可以使用许多其他的方向词与"来"和"去"搭配。其中有一对是"进"和"出",指的是向内和向外的移动。

 

进 and 出 combine with 来 and 去 in the same way as 上 and 下 did above. For example:

"进"和"出"与"来"和"去"的搭配跟上面所说的"上""下"是一样的。例如:

 

请进来。

qǐng jìnlái.

Please come in.

 

The speaker might be in a room or office and is inviting the listener to come in. More examples:

说话者或许是在房间里或办公室里邀请听话者进来。还有一些例子:

 

我在换衣服,你别进来!

wǒ zài huàn yīfú, nǐ bié jìnlái!

I'm getting changed, don't come in!

 

我今晚要出去。

wǒ jīn wǎn yào chūqù.

I'm going to go out tonight.

 

他把自己锁在房间里,不让人进去!

Tā bǎ zìjǐ suǒ zài fángjiān lǐ, bù ràng rén jìnqù!

He's locked himself in his room and won't let anyone in!

 

With direction complements involving 进 and 出, you've got to consider if the movement is going into or out of a location, and whether the speaker is inside or outside of that location.

使用方向补语"进"和"出"的时候,你需要考虑移动方向是从地点向内还是向外,以及说话者是在地点的里面还是外面。

 

Back: 回 (huí)

 

The next direction we'll look at is 回. This is for movements that are going back or returning. You can combine 回 with 来 or 去 to talk about coming back or going back.

接下来的方向谈到的是"回"。这是用于返回或回归的移动。你可以用"回"搭配"来"或者"去",可以讲述"coming back (回来)"或"going back (回去)"。

 

Have a look at some examples:

看看以下一些例子:

 

我忘了带伞,我要回去拿。

wǒ wàngle dài sǎn, wǒ yào huíqù ná.

I've forgotten my umbrella. I'll go back and get it.

 

你什么时候从巴西回来?

nǐ shénme shíhou cóng bāxī huílái?

When are you coming back from Brazil?

 

你几点回去?

nǐ jǐ diǎn huíqù?

What time are you going back?

 

他星期二晚上回来。

tā xīngqí'èr wǎnshàng huílái.

He's coming back on Tuesday evening.

 

Across: 过 (guò)

 

By combining 来 or 去 with 过, you can talk about movements that come across or go across. This can also cover come over and go over in English.

用"过"搭配"来"或者"去",你可以讲述"come across (过来)"或"go across (过去)"的移动,这也包含英语里"come over"和"go over"的意思。

 

Examples:

例子:

 

他看到了我,就过来跟我打招呼。

tā kàn dàole wǒ, jiù guòlái gēn wǒ dǎzhāohū.

He saw me and came over to say hello.

 

邻居买了新的车,我要过去看一下。

línjū mǎile xīn de jū, wǒ yào guòqù kàn yīxià.

The neighbours have bought a new car – I'm going to go over and have a look.

 

你要不要过来吃饭?

nǐ yào bùyào guòlái chīfàn?

Do you want to come round to eat?

 

我看到了一个老人摔倒了,马上就过去帮忙。

wǒ kàn dàole yīgè lǎorén shuāidǎo le, mǎshàng jiù guòqù bāngmáng.

I saw an old person fall down, and immediately went over to help.

 

Note that other than meaning "go over", 过去 is also a word meaning "the past".

注意,"过去"既有"go over"的意思,还是一个表示"the past"的词。

 

Rising: 起 (qǐ)

 

In general it means "to rise", and in direction complements it can only be combined with 来. Examples:

通常它的意思是"to rise",而在方向补语里它只能搭配"来"。例如:

 

请站起来。

qǐng zhàn qǐlái.

Please stand up.

 

已经下午一点了,你快点起来!

yǐjīng xiàwǔ yīdiǎnle, nǐ kuài diǎn qǐlái!

It's already 1pm – get up now!

 

Reaching and arriving: 到 (dào)

 

The structure is slightly different, because you put the destination in between 到 and 来 or 到 and 去.

这个结构稍有不同,因为目的地是放于"到"和"来"之间或者"到"和"去"之间。

 

… 到 [destination] 去

… 到 [destination] 来

 

These are used to talk about going to places or coming to places. Examples:

这类是用于讲述"去某地"或"来某地"的情况。例如:

 

我很想到北京去。

wǒ hěn xiǎngdào Běijīng qù.

I'd really like to go to Beijing.

 

我希望你可以到这里来。

wǒ xīwàng nǐ kěyǐ dào zhèlǐ lái.

I hope you can come here.

2016-06-21

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