The character 才(cái) is one of those very common parts of Chinese grammar that many students find difficult because it is so common and versatile. This article will separate the grammatical uses of 才 into four different types.
才 meaning "only"
才 can mean "only", i.e. it implies that something is small or few in quantity. When used in this way, it very often appears with a measure word and a number. In this way it can express that "there are only x things".
Have a look at an example:
Nǐ zěnme yǒu nàme duō?
How come you've got so many?
Wǒ cái yǒu liǎng gè!
I've only got two!
We don’t know what these two people are talking about, but A seems to believe that B has a lot of it. B uses 才 to indicate that he/she doesn’t actually have a lot – he/she only have two.
Some more examples:
Tā cái láiguò yīcì.
He's only been here once before.
Xiànzài cái wǔ diǎn, tài zǎole.
It's only five o'clock – it's too early.
Wǒmen yīgòng cái yǒu 500 kuài qián, wánquán bùgòu.
Altogether we've only got 500 bucks – it's not enough at all.
Notice how in all of these examples there is a sense of a sequence. Maybe in the future there will be more, but at the moment we’ve only reached a particular amount.
才 meaning "not until"
The next meaning of 才 is "not until". This is also very common. When used in this way, 才 is always followed by a verb or verb phrase. Another thing to note is that when 才 means "not until", it usually means that the event is expected.
Wǒmen shí diǎn shàngkè, kěshì tā shíyī diǎn cái lái.
We start class at 10, but she didn't arrive until 11.
Tā míngtiān cái zǒu.
He's not leaving until tomorrow.
Nǐ zěnme xiànzài cái lái?
How come you've only just got here?
Nǐ zuò wán zuòyè cái kěyǐ chūqù.
You can't go out until you've finished your homework.
Always remember that when using 才 to talk about timings, you don’t use 了. The two characters 才 and 了 don’t generally play well together; it’s one or the other.
Another little tip that you might find useful is that when 才 is used with times, you could think of it as being the opposite of ‘already’. ‘Already’ can suggest that something happened earlier than expected, whereas 才 can suggest that it happened later than expected.
As well as talking about actual times, 才 can be used a little more idiomatically to talk about whether things qualify or meet certain standards. Some examples should make this idea clearer:
Dào běifāng cáinéng chī dào zhēnzhèng de jiǎozi!
You can only get real dumplings in the north!
Zhè cái suàn yīgè chōngfèn de lǐyóu.
That's a good reason.
Zhèyàng zuò cái duì.
That's the way to do it. ["It's not right until you do it this way."]
才 meaning "just now"
When used to mean "just now", or "a moment ago", 才 nearly always implies that the event should have happened earlier.
Wǒ cái xiàbān.
I just got off work.
Wǒ cái jiēdàole tā de diànhuà.
I just got his call.
Wǒ cái kàn dàole nǐ de email.
I just saw your email.
These all mean "just now" or "a moment ago", but there’s clearly a sense of "only just now" as well. It feels as if the events were expected to happen sooner, but didn’t.
才 for emphasis
Finally, 才 can be used to add strong emphasis to a sentence. 才 really is just adding heavy emphasis in these sentences:
Wǒ cái bù huì ne!
I'd never do that!
Wǒ cái bù chī zhème ěxīn de dōngxi ne!
There's no way I'm eating something so disgusting!
Nǐ cái bèn ne!
Are you stupid or what?!